IPv4 Address :
An IP Address is a 32-bit address which consists of a host number a network prefix, IP Address is used for uniquely identifying the host within a network. To easily understand the IP Address they are separated into 4 bytes which are separated by periods “.”. The 1st part of the IP Address is used to identify the network on which the hosts resides and the 2nd art is used for identifying the host in the network given.
IP Address eg : 192.168.1.1
In additional to the IP Address there is also a another values used to define the network which is called as “Subnet Mask” which acts as a boundary between the network and the host.
Subnet mask is also a 32-bit address which looks similar to the IP Address, they are also separated by periods “.”. Subnet mask is used to mask a portion of the IP Address so that TCP/IP can find the difference between the network ID and the host ID.
Subnet Mask eg : 255.255.255.0
Different Classses in Subnet Mask :
- Class A subnet mask 255.0.0.0
- Class B subnet mask 255.255.0.0
- Class C subnet mask 255.255.255.0
Components of IP Address :
Network ID : Defines the Network segment in which the device is located.
Host ID : Defines the Host / devices in a network segment.
Different Classes in IP Address :
Class A addresses range from 126.96.36.199 – 188.8.131.52
Class B addresses range from 184.108.40.206 – 220.127.116.11
Class C addresses range from 192.0.0.0 – 18.104.22.168
Class D addresses range from 22.214.171.124 – 126.96.36.199
Class E addresses range from 240.0.0.0 – 254.255.255.255
Reserved IP Address :
0 – represents all IP addresses.
127 – it’s used for loop back testing.
255 – it’s used for broadcasting purposes.
Here whenever you are using the IP Address, you need to keep in mind that the first address in the network is always called as the Network address and the last address is always called as the Broadcasting address, as given below
0.0.0.0 – Network address
255.255.255.255 – Broadcasting address.
While assigning IP Address to the network devices, two types of address will be used and they are called as the Public and Private address.
Public IP Address :
Class A, Class B and Class C addresses are called as the Public addresses which was used in the public networks like Internet.
Private IP Address :
In the Class A, Class B and Class C addresses there are some addresses which are reserved within that range and those address are called as the Private address. These addresses are used only in the Private network, for eg. they are used in the small or big corporate companies.
Class A: 10.0.0.0–10.255.255.255 (1 Class A network)
Class B: 172.16.0.0–172.31.255.255 (16 Class B networks)
Class C: 192.168.0.0–192.168.255.255 (256 Class C networks)
IPv6 Address :
There is another version of IP Address which was used in most of Network Industry, Since the IPv4 address has only limited ip address range almost all the companies in the moving to IPv6 addresses since it has got millions of addresses.